Flora and Fauna

Nepali Flora and Fauna

  • 25 % of Nepal is covered by forests of various kinds and contrary to many other places in the world we have managed to do well in soil and forest conservation especially after the concept of community forestry began in the 1990s.
  • Of the more than 6000 species of plants found here 245 are endemic to Nepal
  • A total of 118 ecosystem, 75 vegetation and 35 forest types have been identified so far.
  • 863 species of birds, 167 species of mammals, 100 species of reptiles, more than 650 species of butterflies and moths and the countless insects share the country with their fellow humans


Protected Areas

Nepal is a country gifted by nature. However with the rapidly growing population demands on the natural resources is increasing. Realising the need to conserve Nepal’s natural heritage many of the former hunting grounds of the past regimes were converted to protected areas and given the status of national parks, wildlife reserves, conservation areas and hunting reserves. Wildlife and nature conservation has always been one of the main policies of the governments of Nepal with 9 different national parks, 3 wildlife reserves, 3 conservation areas and one hunting reserve.


Sagarmatha National Park

Spread over an area of 1,148 sq km the Sagarmatha National Park was established in 1976, in the Khumbu region of Nepal. The Park includes the upper catchments areas of the Dudhkoshi and Bhotehoshi Rivers and is largely composed of rugged terrain and gorges of the high Himalaya, ranging from 2,845m at Monjo to the top of the world's highest mountain – Mt. Everest or Sagarmatha at 8,850m above sea level. Other peaks above 6,000m are Lhotse, Cho Oyu, Thamserku. Nuptse, Amadablam and Pumori, The Sherpa people who have gained world fame for their mountain climbing abilities and whose lives are interwoven with the teachings of Buddhism, live in the region. Monasteries like the world renowned Tengboche, Thame, Khumjung and Pangboche are common gathering places during times of Buddhist festivals. The  Park was listed as a World Heritage Site in 1979. The vegetation found at the lower altitude of the park include pine and hemlock forests, while fir, juniper, birch and rhododendron, scrub and alpine plant communities are common at the higher altitude. The park is home to the red panda, snow leopard, musk deer,  Himalayan tahr, marten, Himalayan mouse hare (pika) and over 118 species of bird including the Impeyan pheasant, snow cock, blood pheasant, red billed cough etc.


Chitwan National Park

Situated in south central Nepal, and covering and area of 932 sq km in the subtropical lowlands of the inner Terai, the former hunting ground of the royalty and their guests is world example in nature conservation. In 1973 the area was declared the first national park of Nepal. In 1984 UNESCO declared the park as a World Heritage Site. In 1996 an area of 750 km surrounding the park was declared a buffer zone, which consists of forests and private lands including cultivated lands. The park and the local people jointly initiate community development activities and manage natural resources in the buffer zone. 30-50 percent of the park revenue goes for community development and natural resource management in the buffer zone.

The park consists of a diversity of ecosystems-including the Churia hills, Ox-bow lakes, and the flood plains of the Rapti, Reu and Narayani Rivers. The Churia hills rise slowly towards the east from 150 m. to more than 800 m. The western portion of the park is comprised of the lower but more rugged Someshwor hill while it shares its its eastern boundary with the Parsa Wildlife Reserve.

Chitwan National Park has a range of climatic seasons each offering a unique experience, the most enjoyable climate being October through February with average temperatures of 25* C. From March to June temperatures can reach as high as 43*C soon giving way to the monsoon season that typically lasts from late June until September. In late January, local villagers are allowed to cut thatch grasses to meet their needs, offering a better viewing of wildlife to visitors.
During the months of September, November, February and April, migratory birds join the residential birds and create spectacular bird watching opportunities. While the monsoon rains bring lush vegetation, most trees flower in late winter. The Palash tree, known as the "flame of the forest' and silk cotton tree have spectacular crimson flowers that can be seen from a distance. The Chitwan valley consists of tropical and subtropical forests. Sal forests cover 70 percent of the park. Sal leaves are used locally for plates in festivals and religious offerings Grasslands cover 20 percent of the park. There are more than 50 different types of grasses, including the elephant grass that can grow up to 8m in height. The park is home to more than 50 mammal species, over 525 birds, and 55 amphibians and reptiles including endangered species like the One-horned rhinoceros, Gaur, Royal Bengal Tiger, Wild elephant, Four-horned Antelope, Pangolin, Golden monitor lizard, Python, birds like the Bengal Florican, Lesser Florican, Giant Hornbill, Black Stork, While Stork, etc.
There are 7 wildlife resorts inside the park itself, run by park concessionaires that can provide lodging and access to wildlife activities. Various resorts and lodges situated outside the park also offer variety of services.


Shey Phoksundo National Park

Shey-Phoksundo National Park is situated in the trans-Himalayan region of northwest Nepal. It is Nepal’s largest National Park covering an area of sq 3,555 km. It was established in 1984 to preserve a unique Trans-Himalayan ecosystem with a diversity of flora and fauna. The Park’s climatic differences, altitude variations, and different zoo-geographical regions support a diverse range of biotic systems.

Shey Phoksundo National Park provides a diversity of spectacular landscapes. Elevations in the park range from 2,130m in Ankhe to 6,883m at the summit of Kanjiroba Himal. Much of the park lies north of the Himalayan crest. Nepal’s deepest and second largest lake, Phoksundo Lake, lies in  upper regions of Suligad. Near the lake’s outlet is the country’s highest waterfall. The major rivers in the park are the Khung, Nmajung and Panjang, The Suligad and Jugdual Rivers, which are the major tributaries of the Thuli Bheri River; and the Langu Rilver, which drains the high dolpo plateau to the east and flows westward.

Phoksundo Lake is famous for its magnificent turquoise color and te spectacular scenery clearly rank it with the most scenic mountain parks in the world. Ringmo village, a typical Tibetan village, is scenically nestled in the area. Many beautiful glaciers can be found near and above the lake area. The Park contain many Gompas (Monasteries) and religious area. The most famous, Shey Gompa was established in the 11th Century. Thashung Gompa located near Phoksundo Lake was built about 900 years ago to conserve wildlife.

As a result of its spanning both the northern and southern aspects of the Himalayan crest, the park experiences a wide climatic range. Most of the precipitation in the area occurs during the monsoon (July-September), although the Dhaulagari and Kanjiroba Ranges from a massive barrier preventing most of the rain from reaching the Trans-Himalayan area. The park contains the transition form a monsoon dominated climate with 1500 mm.of annual precipitation in the south (Suligad) to an arid climate with less than 500 mm. a year in the northern slopes. Winters are quite severe, with frequent snowfalls above 2,500m. and temperature’s remaining below freezing above 3,000m. through much of the winter.
The flora found within the park is exteremely diverse. The northern regions contain barren areas of the upper Himalayas and the Trans-Himalayan slope lands consisting of some rhododendron, caragana shrubs, and Salix, Juniper, white Himalayan birch, and the occasional silver fir dominate the high meadows of the Himalaya. Less than five percent of the park is forested, with much of it lying in the southern portion. The Suligad Vally’s flora consists of blue pine, spruce, hemlock, cedar, silver fir, poplar, rhododendron, and bamboo. The park also contains 286 species of ethnobotanical importance.

The park provides important habitat for endangered species including the snow leopard, grey wolf, musk deer, and blue sheep, goral, great Tibetan sheep, Himalayan tahr, leopard, jackal, and Himalayan black bear are also found in the park. The park is home to six reptiles and 29 species of butterfly, including the highest flying butterfly in the world, Paralasa Nepalica. The park provides habitat for over 200 species of birds, among which include Yellow-Throated Marten, Tibetan Partridge, Wood Snip, White-Throated Tit, Wood Accentor, and Crimson-Eared Rose Finch.
The area surrounding the park is also home to more than 9,000 people and their villages area among the highest settlements on Earth. Most of the inhabitants of the park practice Bon Buddhism, an ancient religion with roots in Animism and Buddhism. The Bon-po religion, which forms the entire cultural base for Tibetan Buddhism, was founded 18,000 years ago, during the Zhang Zung Empire of today's western Tibet. The landscape is dotted with sacred monasteries, Thangka paintings, and Chortens. The local community is heavily dependent on trade with Tibet and agriculture. This area is also famous for its salt trade caravans.


Bardia National Park

As the largest single protected area of Nepal, the Bardia National Park lies in the south west Terai and covers area of 968 sq km and was established to protect representative ecosystems and conserve tiger and its prey species. Initially, a small area was gazetted as the Royal Karnali Wildlife Reserve in 1976. 1500 households of the Babai valley were resettled outside the park allowing the vegetation and wildlife to flourish. In 1982, it was renamed as Royal Bardia Wildlife Reserve, and in 1984 it was extended to its current size. The reserve was given the status of a National Park in 1988. Greater One-horned Rhinoceros were translocated from Royal Chitwan National Park in 1986, 1991, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002. In 1997, an area of 327 km2 surrounding the park was declared as a buffer zone, which consists of forests and private lands. The park and local communities jointly manage the buffer zone. Together they initiate community development activities and manage natural resources in the buffer zones. An elephant ride provides a different view of the park as one can go off the main trail, Morning and late afternoon is the ideal time to go on a ride. The Karnali river is home for the endangered Gangetic Dolphin, Gharial crocodile and Marsh mugger. The blue waters also provide habitat for Mahasheer, a game fish, considered an excellent catch.
Riverine forests along the shores of the river create prime habitat for birds such as Herons, Egrets, Black-necked, stork, and Little Pratincole.

The park has three distinct seasons, each providing a unique experience. Form October through early April the weather is dry. The days are warm, and the nights are cool and pleasant. From April to June the temperatures warm up, are peaking up to 450c in May. The hot sticky days give way to the monsoon rains that lasts until September. The park offers a variety of experiences in its vast undisturbed wilderness. More that 30 different mammals, over 230 species of birds and several species of snakes, lizard and fish have been recorded in the park's forest, grassland and river. In addition to the resident species, several migratory birds visit the park.


Khaptad National Park

Named after the famous spiritual saint Khaptad Swami who moved to the area to meditate and spent almost five decades there, the Khaptad National Park lies in the far-western region of Nepal, was gazetted in 1984 and covers an area of 225 sq km.  The park is the only mid-mountain national park in western Nepal, representing a unique and important ecosystem. The park offers challenging yet rewarding experience unlike any other protected area in Nepal. To the north one can see the Saipal Himal range while the vast green mid-hills of Nepal lie opposite. There are 22 open patches of Patans or highland meadows in between the forests. In the north-eastern part of the park, there is a lake called Khaptad Daha. Spring (March-May) and autumn (October-November) are the best times to visit the park. The temperature ranges from 10°c to 20°c offering pleasant trekking weather. The monsoon begins in June and last until September during this time paths become muddy and slippery. From December to February winter brings snow and chilling winds.
In addition to the 175 residential species of birds some 256 different migratory species 135 species of flowers, 224 species of medicinal herbs, 20 species of mammals have been observed in the park.
The flora of the park can be divided into three basic vegetation zone's-subtropical, and temperate. In the lower altitudes (1000 - 2000 m), subtropical vegetation dominates the landscape; Forest mainly consists of Montane Sal, Pines and Alder species. From 1800 - 3000 m temperate type dominates the landscape. The forest there are comprised of lower temperate mixed broad-leaved species, temperate mixed evergreen species, and upper temperate broad-leaved species.


Rara National Park

Rara National Park is located in the North-Westem high mountains of Nepal . The park was gazetted in 1976 to conserve the unique beauty of Lake Rara, and to protect the representative flora and fauna of the Humla-Jumla region. The park is Nepal's smallest protected area comprising an area of 106 sq km.

Rara Lake situated at an elevation of 2990 m is the main feature of the park. The lake is oval shaped with an east-west axis, and has a maximum length of 5 km and a width of 3 km. Surrounded by magnificent conifer forests, it is Nepal's biggest lake (10.8 sq km) with a depth of 167 m. Its radiant blue water is home to the snow trout, the only fish recorded in the lake. During winter, bird lovers can enjoy many migratory birds. In summer, Himalayan flowers surround the lake creating a colorful landscape. The elevation of the park ranges from 2800 m to 4039 m. Chuchemara peak (4039 m) is the highest point in the park. Located on the southern side of the lake, it provides an excellent backdrop to Lake Rara. The snowcapped summits of Ruma Kand (3731m) and Malika Kand (3444m) located on the northern side of the lake, provide beautiful views of the lake to the south, and the beautiful Mugu-Kamali River valley to the north. MurmaPeak also provides and excellent view of the park area. The lake drains to Mugu-Kamali River via Nijar Khola. The majority of the vegetation in the park is dominated by blue pine. Interspersed amongst the pines, are found several species of rhododendrons. Blue pine, herbs, marshlands, and tussock grasslands inhabit the area surrounding the lake. In the Nisa khola Valley pine and spruce give way to mixed woodland containing walnuts and Himalayan popular. Rhododendron, fir, oak, and birch species can be found in the sub alpine region. Summer is pleasant. However, winter is quite cold. The best time of year to visit the park is September/October and April to May. December through March, the temperatures drops to below  freezing, and heavy snowfalls occur up to one meter, closing high passes. The park is home to around 20 different species of mammals including Musk deer, Himalayan Black Bear, Leopard, Jackal, Himalayan Tahr, Yellow Throated Marten, Otter, Wild Dog, Common Langur and even the endangered Red panda. The park has recorded 214 species of birds including coots, snow cock, pheasants, grebes, mallard, common teal, Red-crested Pochard and gulls.


Langtang National Park

Established in 1976 to conserve the unique flora and fauna of the region the Langtang National Park lies north east of Kathmandu in the central Himalayan Region. The park represents a meeting point between indo-Malayan and Palearctic realms, and holds a rich biodiversity. September through May offers a variety of natural splendors, from lush temperate river valleys with screeching langur to spectacular old growth forest and glacial-craved cliffs rimmed by snow-covered peaks. The weather is also relatively dry except January-February when one may come across snow. Autumn is the best time to visit the Park. By April bursts of red, pink, and while rhododendrons stretch into towering canopies of fir and oak forests. Advent of warm weather makes the Yak and Chauri herds ascend to higher elevation, making occasional camps in the pasturelands, to follow years of tradition. From June to august, skies are heavy with monsoon rains. During August, a lively festival at Gosaikunda Lake attracts thousands of Hindu pilgrims and September witnesses’ spectacular display of wild flowers, while livestock herds, once again, return to lower pastures.  Langtang's expansive high meadows provide summer habitat for numerous ungulate species such as musk deer and Himalayan Tahr. The park is also well known for its populations of red panda, Himalayan black bear, snow leopard, wild dog, Ghoral, serow and more than 250 species of birds.


Makalu Barun National Park

Makalu Barun National Park was established in 1992. This park administered and managed by Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Government of Nepal and supported by The Mountain Institute's initiative, is an innovative conservation model that integrates protected area management and community development. A new park management approach encourages local people to become actively involved in protecting the forests and natural resources upon which their lives depend, and conserving their own rich cultural heritage. Traditional resource management systems, such as community controlled grazing and forest guardianship, are being strengthened and low technologies introduced where appropriate. From tropical forests along the Arun River to icy mountain summits, the Makalu-Barun National Park covers and area of  1500 sq km. The skyline is panorama of rugged Himalayan peaks, include Mt. Makalu (8,463m) the fifth highest mountain in the world, Mt. Chamlang (7,319m), Mt. Baruntse (7,129m), and Mera Peak (6,654m).
Recognized for its tremendous diversity of plants, animals and people, the area contains 25 species of rhododendron, 47 types of orchids, and 56 rare plants. Snow leopard, red panda, musk deer, wild boar are among the wildlife found here.


Shivapuri National Park

Shivapuri National Park  covers an area of 144 sq km, is situated on the northern fringe of Kathmandu valley and lies about 12 km away from the center of capital city. The area was gazetted as the country's ninth national park in 2002. Prior its declaration as national park, it was managed under the Shivapuri Watershed Development Board, and was later declared as Shivapuri Watershed and Wildlife Reserve.

Shivapuri lies in a transition zone between subtropical and temperate climates. The vegetation consists of a variety of natural forest types including pine, oak, rhododendron etc, depending on altitude and aspect. Recorded wildlife in the park includes mammalian species such as Himalayan Black bear, leopard, jungle cat, and rhesus monkey. The park is also home to 177 species of birds, including at least 9 threatened species, 102 species of butterflies with a number of rare and endangered species, and 129 species of mushroom.

Shivapuri is one of the main sources of drinking water for Kathmandu Valley. Everyday about 30 million liters of water is tapped from rivers such as the Bagmati and the Bishnumati as well as from several other smaller streams


Wildlife Reserves

Parsa Wildlife Reserve

Parsa Wildlife Reserve is located in the south-central lowland Terai of Nepal. The 499 km2 of pristine sub-tropical jungle makes Parsa Nepal's largest wildlife reserve. Once this area served as a vacation site for the Rana Rulers of the country. In 1984, it was gazetted as a wildlife reserve to preserve the habitat for wild Asian elephant, and a variety of other fauna- It is contiguous with Royal Chitwan National Park in the west.

The soil is primarily composed of gravel and conglomerates, making it susceptible to erosion. The hills present a very rugged face with numerous gullies and dry streambeds. As the foothills are very porous, water flows underground and surfaces at a distance of about 15 km. from the hills base. The Churia hill range from 750m to 950m running east to west.
Winter (October-December) provide pleasant temperatures with clear skies. Nighttime temperatures can drop to 0°C. During spring (January-March) temperatures rise and water becomes scarce. During summer (April-June) the days become hot and humid with temperatures rising up to -40°C. Monsoon (July-September) brings cooling rains.

The forests are mainly composed of tropical and subtropical species. Sal forests compose about 90 percent of the reserve's vegetation. Along the banks of the rivers, riverine forests are found containing species like Khair and Silk cotton tree. In the north-eastern part of the reserve, at higher altitudes, Sal and Pine forests are occurring. On the southern slope of the Siwalik hills, the forests are dominated by pine. The reserve supports good populations of various endangered species including wild Asian elephant, Royal Bengal Tiger, Sloth Bear, and Leopard. Blue Bull, Sambar, Chital, Hog deer, Barking Deer, Langur, Rhesus macaques, Striped Hyena, Jungle Cat, and Palm Civet. The reserve also provides habitat for more than 500 species of birds like the White breasted kingfisher, Paradise Flycatcher, Large Racquet-tailed Drongo, Golden-backed Woodpecker. Giant Hornbill, one of the endangered bird species is found in some forest patches. The reserve is also famous for reptiles and different kinds of snakes including Common Cobra, Common and Banded Karit, Python and the magnificent King Cobra.


Shukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve

Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve covering an area of 305 sq km was managed as a hunting reserve beginning 1969, and was gazetted as a Wildlife Reserve in 1976. It lies in the extreme south-western section of Nepal’s Terai in Kanchanpur District. The reserve shares a common boundary with the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh in the south and west formed by the Mahakali River, a major tributary of the Ganges. It is bordered on the eastern side by the Chaudhar River and to the north by a forest belt and cultivations. A total of 24 mammal species, 350 species of birds of which 180 are breeding species, 14 species of fish can be found here. The area of the reserve is small but it supports a wide range of biodiversity like the largest population of Bengal Florican and Swamp Deer in Nepal.


Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve

Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve lies on the floodplains of the Sapta Koshi River in the south-eastern Terai. The reserve was gazetted in 1976 to preserve habitat for the only remaining population of Wild buffalo or Arna. The 176 sq km reserve is Nepal's smallest wildlife reserve. The eastern and western embankments of the Sapta Koshi River, one of the main tributaries of the Ganges defines the area. In 1987, Koshi Tappu was declared a Ramsar site, a wetland of international significance. The reserve experiences three distinct seasons. Summer (February through May) is intensely hot with minimum precipitation. Shade temperatures can reach 40 c. The monsoon starts in late May/early June and lasts until September bringing heavy frequent rainfalls. The rainfall is greatest during July but high humidity and temperatures are experienced throughout the season. Winter (October through January) is characterized by clear skies and moderate temperature, but can still get quite cold.

The last surviving population of 159 Wild buffalo distinguished by their large horns in comparison to the domestic buffalo is found here. The reserve is also home to around 20 other animal species such as Hog deer ,Wild boar , Spotted deer, Blue bull, and Rock Python. Around 441 species of birds-many seen nowhere else in Nepal have been recorded, including 20 duck species , 2 Ibis species, white tailed stonechat,  Striated marsh warbler, 30 shore birds, 114 water birds, and the endangered swamp partridge and Bengal Florican. The Koshi Barrage is an extremely important resting place for many migratory birds, containing 87 winter and trans-Himalayan migratory species. The Koshi River is home to 80 species of fish along with the endangered Gharial crocodile and Gangetic Dolphin.


Conservation Areas

Annapurna Conservation Area

The Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) contains some of the world’s highest peaks the world’s deepest valley-the Kali Gandaki River Valley. It is the Nepal’s largest protected area of 7629 sq. km. It was established in 1992. The proposed conservation area encompasses the Annapurna range in Western Nepal. It is bounded to the north by the dry alpine deserts of Mustang and Tibet (China), to the west by the Kali Gandaki River, to the east by Marsyandi Valley and to the south by valleys and foothills north of Pokhara.

The area has an entire habitat gradient from sub tropical sal forest to perenial snow harboring 22 different forest types with 1226 plant species including 55 endemics, 30 mammals and 456 birds.

  • In 1986 ACAP was implemented by KMTNC in Ghandruk as a pilot project covering one VDC with area of 200 km2
  • In 1990, it’s work area had expanded to 16 VDCs with an area of 1500 km2
  • Officially gazetted in 1992 covering 55 VDCs with present area
  • Some of the world’s highest peaks (Annapuran I: 8,091m, Machhapuchhere: 6,993)
  • World’s deepest gorge: Kali Gandaki and one of the world's highest altitude lake Tilicho
  • Most popular trekking destination (76407 in 2000)
  • Two distinct climatic regions (3000mm annual rainfall in south (cis Himalayas) and 500mm annual rainfall in north (trans Himalayas) within a span of 120 km and altitude of 1000-8000m
  • 22 different forest types
  • A total of 1226 species of plants (1140 species in the cis Himalayas) including 38 Orchid species and 9 Rhododendron species
  • 101 species of mammals including Snow Leopard, Musk Deer, Tibetan Argali, Tibetan Wolf, Tibetan Fox. 474 species of birds including 38 breeding species of birds at risk in Nepal, all six Himalayan pheasants found in Nepal. 39 species of reptiles and 22 species of amphibians.
  • Nepal’s largest protected area and first conservation area with the entire habitat gradient from sub tropical sal forest to perennial snow.
  • More than 100,000 inhabitants and more than 10 ethnic groups (Tibeto-Burman: Gurung, Thakali, Bhotia, Ethnic Tibetan and Magar and Indo-Aryan: Brahmin, Kshetri, Kami, Damai and Sarki)


Kanchanjunga Conservation Area

Named after Mt. Kanchenjunga (8,586m), the third highest mountain in the world Kanchenjunga Conservation Area was designated as a conservation area in March 1998 and covers an area of 2035 sq km in Taplejung district, in the northeastern corner of Nepal. The conservation area with its unique mountain ecosystems is envisioned as the worlds first tri-national peace park with the Qomolungma Nature Reserve in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China in the north and the Khangchenzonga National Park in Sikkim, India to the east. In April 1997, the Kanchenjunga region was declared as a Gift to the Earth as part of WWF’s Living Planet Campaign 2000 by the government of Nepal. The region comprises some of the most stunning scenery in all of Nepal. It is also a global hotspot for plant biodiversity. 23 species of rhododendrons alone have been identified by botanists in the area. Its rich forests support more than 250 species of birds and endangered wildlife like the Snow Leopard and the Red Panda. Throughout the KCA, you will encounter a medley of ethnicities that continue to practice traditional subsistence lifestyles, their cultural and religious practices adding to the area's rich cultural heritage.


Manaslu Conservation Area

Manaslu was declared a “Conservation Area” in December 1998 and covers an area of 1663 sq. km. The region harbors a mosaic of habitats for 33 species of mammals, 110 species of birds, 11 species of butterflies and 3 species of reptiles. There are approx 2000 species of plants, 11 types of forests and over 50 species on useful plants. The altitude rises from a mere 600m to the summit of Mt. Manaslu (8,163), the eighth highest peak in the world.

Hunting Reserves

Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve

The one and only hunting reserve in the country, Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve was established in 1983 and adjoins Rukum, Myagdi and Baglung districts in the Dhaulagiri Himal range in west Nepal. Putha, Churen and Gurja Himal extend over the northern boundary of the reserve. Management objectives of the reserve allow sports hunting and preserve a representative high altitude, ecosystem in western Nepal. The reserve extends over an area of 1325 km2 and is the only hunting reserve in the country to meet the needs of hunting for Nepalese and foreign hunters of blue sheep and other game animals. Local people depend on the reserve to meet their requirements of timber, fuel-wood, fodder, and pasture. The Tibetan refugee camp near the reserve headquarters has put more human pressure in the forest. Every year livestock grazing activities begin from February and last until October. More than 80,000 livestock enter the reserve for grazing. The majority of people belong to the Mongoloid race, including Mugar, Thakali and Gurung, Amalgamation of different ethnic groups has resulted in a mixed pattern of cultures. The higher elevations remain snow-capped throughout the year. Altitudes vary from 3000 m to more than 7000 m. The flat meadows above tree line (4000 m), locally known as Patans, are important for animals like the blue sheep and other herbivores. The reserve is surrounded by villages on all sides except the north. The reserve is one of the prime habitats of blue sheep, a highly coveted trophy, leopard, Goral, Serow, Himalayan Tahr, Himalayan black bear, barking deer, wild boar, rhesus macaque, langur and mouse hare. Pheasants and partridge are common and their viable population in the reserve permits controlled hunting.

weather info

Kathmandu, Nepal
Current Weather Status
Please click here for Detail
Nepal Weather

foreign exchange

Rates in Nepalese Rupees


Flight Hotel/Room

Number of Guests

One Way Two Way

Additional Info